Every key has seven basic chords (one for every note within the scale). every of those chords encompasses a operate. except for all seven of them, there area unit solely 3 basic functions, solely 3 basic groups: tonic, dominant, and tone. Tonic chords area unit the foremost stable and that they establish a key. they’re those that chord progressions move to so as to unharness tension. they’re the primary, third, and sixth degrees of no matter scale is at hand. Dominant chords area unit the foremost tense, and that they wish powerfully to resolve to some tonic chord. Dominant chords area unit the farthest, harmonically, faraway from the tonic, however which means that they purpose back toward the tonic, so their operate is to guide the progression back to the key center. These area unit the fifth and seventh degrees of the dimensions, and any chords designed on those degrees. tone chords area unit the chords that establish movement faraway from the tonic and toward the dominant before the dominant chords wish to resolve back to the tonic chords. Tonic chords establish a key, whereas tone chords move faraway from that key. These chords area unit tense, however not within the same approach that dominant chords area unit, and that they tend to maneuver toward dominant chords (although
they can additionally switch directions and recede toward tonic chords). These area unit the second and fourth degrees of the dimensions. Let’s take AN example, victimisation the key of C. In C Major, and chord designed from the C major, E minor, or A minor triads area unit thought of tonic chords. All of those chords can establish the key center. Any chords designed on the D minor or F major triads can move faraway from C major as a tonic. These area unit the tone chords, and that they area unit continually on the second and fourth degrees of the dimensions. Finally, any chords designed on the G major or B diminished triads area unit dominant chords. These area unit continually on the fifth and seventh degrees of a scale. These chords can establish the foremost tension, however they’re going to additionally purpose right back to tonic chords, since they require to resolve in this direction.
How Notes operate in a very Chord.
The notes of a chord operate in foreseeable ways in which, a bit like the chords of a key. the essential structure of a chord at its simplest, the triad, is that the most stable a part of that chord, with the one and five being the foremost consonant. this can be why it’s potential to play nothing however power chords (also referred to as fifths) and sound smart. the three could be a stable note in a very chord, however not as stable because the one or five. The 3 does, however, serve to see whether or not the chord is major or minor. the primary extension of a triad could be a seven. this can be consequent most stable interval once the 3, and it is well to paint the chord and confirm its family — major, minor, dominant. The last 3 extensions — nine, 11, thirteen — don’t, in general, establish the inspiration of that chord, nor do they confirm whether or not it’s a serious, minor, or dominant chord. they’re additionally way less stable than the one, 3, 5, or seven notes (those four area unit referred to as “chord tones” exactly due to their stability). These extensions do, however, color the chord completely different|in several|in numerous} directions — a minor sixth sounds quite different than a serious sixth, for example.
Types of Harmony
Harmony is quickly the foremost basic and also the most advanced construct in music theory. it’s the bedstone of what we predict concerning once we theorize, and it are often created to be a lot of advanced than the general public expect. once we bring up harmony, we tend to area unit talking concerning the approach that notes connect, whether or not they area unit consonant or dissonant, and what kinds of structures they’ll be organized into. we tend to also are talking concerning all of that atemporally — outside of your time. For harmony, it doesn’t matter however long notes area unit command, simply that they’re all hanging along in a very structure.
It can be said that Harmony can be either:
Here’s a brief overview of each
Most of the music within the West is what’s known as “Tonal” music, and it’s within the province of tonal harmony. Tonal music is music that contains a tonic, or a key center — a note that acts because the center of gravity for the piece or for the a part of the piece you’re talking regarding. And tonal harmony is however we tend to perceive the harmony of tonal music — it is sensible of chords and scales relative to some key center or tonic. Tonal harmony will be either: musical note, scalar or chromatic
Chordal music is music whose primary harmonic vehicle is that the chord. we tend to tend to research it by analyzing the means that the chords move and act with each other. the foremost basic unit in musical note music is that the chord, and customarily this implies that we tend to square measure talking regarding triads and their relationships.
Scalar music is music whose primary harmonic vehicle is that the scale. we tend to tend to know this music by analyzing the means that notes and chords square measure derived from the scales that contain them. the foremost basic unit of harmonic in scalar music could be a scale instead of a chord, the latter being derived as a member of the previous. this implies that usually we tend to square measure talking regarding some scale or mode (or series of scales and modes) instead of some set of triads.
Chromatic music is analogous in essence to scalar music, solely the dimensions that’s used is that the 12-tone musical scale. This means, in theory, that the music is unengaged to leave the area of key and go into atonal harmony (see atonal section below), however in apply it’s typically tied to some center of gravity.
Modal vs. Tonal Harmony
Tonal music, as we’ve aforementioned, is music within which there’s a note that acts because the center of gravity. This case be musical note or scalar (or chromatic), however altogether of these cases, there’s one note that weighs the music down at anybody time. Modal music is completely different — it takes a scale or mode as an area to start and treats all of the notes therein scale because the points of gravity. In a sense, the complete scale is that the “key” or “tonic.”
Polytonal harmony will be either tonal or modal. In music, quite one key center is established at a given time. this will occur tonally, as once quite one note is employed as a middle of gravity, or it will be through with modal harmony, once quite one mode is employed at just the once. In either case, the ensuing harmony is complicated and sometimes quite dissonant.
In atonal harmony, there’s no key center. This music, popularized within the west within the twentieth century by composers like composer and Anton Von Webern, treats all twelve tones as if they were centers of gravity. Privilege is given to tones, not as they act with some key center, however as they act with each other. This music is usually troublesome to pay attention to, however a number of it’s quite beautiful.